There are several types of lighting fixture. These fall into two major categories generic and intelligent. However there are lanterns that fall somewhere between the two. LED lights fall into this category.
There is little or no remote control of these lighting fixtures other than dimming the lamp. some have barn doors or focusing that can be done on the light itself but these are mechanical.
Flood lights do” just what they say on the can”. Floods provide an unfocused wash of light good for cyclorama cloths and whole stage washes
Par cans are a very basic light. It is a sealed lamp in a metal tube. PAR stands for Parabolic Aluminised Reflector. It is good for directional punchy lighting. They provide an oval light and can produce varying spreads of light depending on the type of lamp fitted from very narrow spot to wide flood.
Fresnels provide a diffused spot that can be altered in size. It is used for general colour stage washes.
Pebble convex lanterns provide a slightly more focused light than fresnels and fill the gap between fresnels and profile lanterns
These are called lekos in the US. They provide a highly focused beam that can sometimes be varied in angle. They are used for projecting images using GOBOS.
Gels are called gels because they used to be made out of gelatine. Now they arte made out of special plastic.
There are several manufacturers of gels. These include LEE and ROSCO
- or Graphically Orientated Background Objects
These are either metal or made from coloured glass and project a multitude of images to make a set more interesting. For example the moon in the scene below